Acinetobacter Outbreaks of Acinetobacter infections typically occur in intensive care units and healthcare settings housing very ill patients.Acinetobacter infections rarely occur outside of healthcare settings.
Burkholderia cepacia Burkholderia cepacia bacteria are often resistant to common antibiotics. Burkholderia cepacia poses little medical risk to healthy people; however, it is a known cause of infections in hospitalized patients. People with certain health conditions, like weakened immune systems or chronic lung diseases (particularly cystic fibrosis), may be more susceptible to infections with Burkholderia cepacia. [Burkholderia cepacia is also called B. cepacia]
Clostridium difficile Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) causes life-threatening diarrhea. These infections mostly occur in people who have had both recent medical care and antibiotics. Often, C. difficile infections occur in hospitalized or recently hospitalized patients.
Update: A 2015 CDC study found that C. difficile caused almost half a million infections among patients in the United States in a single year. An estimated 15,000 deaths are directly attributable to C. difficile infections, making it a substantial cause of infectious disease death in the United States. We estimate that up to $3,800,000,000 in medical costs could be saved over 5 years.
Clostridium sordellii is a rare bacterium that causes pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, peritonitis, and myonecrosis. Clostridium sordellii bacteremia and sepsis (bacteremia is when bacteria is present in the bloodstream; sepsis is when bacteremia or another infection triggers a serious bodywide response) occur rarely. Most cases of sepsis fromClostridium sordellii occur in patients with other health conditions. Severe toxic shock syndrome among previously healthy persons has been described in a small number of Clostridium sordelliicases, most often associated with gynecologic infections in women and infection of the umbilical stump in newborns. [Clostridium sordellii is also called C. sordellii]
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a family of germs that are difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics. Klebsiella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are examples of Enterobacteriaceae, a normal part of the human gut bacteria, that can become carbapenem-resistant.
In healthcare settings, CRE infections most commonly occur among patients who are receiving treatment for other conditions. Patients whose care requires devices like ventilators (breathing machines), urinary (bladder) catheters, or intravenous (vein) catheters, and patients who are taking long courses of certain antibiotics are most at risk for CRE infections.
Gram-negative bacteria - Gram-negative bacteria cause infections including pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections, and meningitis in healthcare settings. Gram-negative bacteria are resistant to multiple drugs and are increasingly resistant to most available antibiotics. Gram-negative infections include those caused by Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli., as well as many other less common bacteria.
Klebsiella is a type of Gram-negative bacteria that can cause healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections, and meningitis. Increasingly, Klebsiella bacteria have developed antimicrobial resistance, most recently to the class of antibiotics known as carbapenems. Klebsiella bacteria are normally found in the human intestines (where they do not cause disease). They are also found in human stool (feces). In healthcare settings, Klebsiella infections commonly occur among sick patients who are receiving treatment for other conditions. Patients who have devices like ventilators (breathing machines) or intravenous (vein) catheters, and patients who are taking long courses of certain antibiotics are most at risk for Klebsiella infections. Healthy people usually do not get Klebsiella infections.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics called beta-lactams. These antibiotics include methicillin and other more common antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. In the community, most MRSA infections are skin infections. More severe or potentially life-threatening MRSA infections occur most frequently among patients in Healthcare Settings.
Mycobacterium abscessus is a bacterium distantly related to the ones that cause tuberculosis and leprosy. It has been known to contaminate medications and products, including medical devices. Healthcare-associated Mycobacterium abscessus can cause a variety of infections that require medical attention. Infections due to this bacterium are usually of the skin and the soft tissues under the skin. It can also cause lung infections in persons with various chronic lung diseases. [Mycobacterium abscessus is also called M. abscessus]
Noroviruses are a group of viruses that cause gastroenteritis [gas-trō-en-ter-ī-tis] in people. Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines, causing an acute onset of severe vomiting and diarrhea. Norovirus illness is usually brief in people who are otherwise healthy. Young children, the elderly, and people with other medical illnesses are most at risk for more severe or prolonged infection.
Pseudomonas infection is caused by strains of bacteria found widely in the environment; the most common type causing infections in humans is called Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Serious Pseudomonas infections usually occur in people in the hospital and/or with weakened immune systems.
Staphylococcus aureus (staph), is a bacterium commonly found on the skin and in the nose of about 30% of individuals. Most of the time, staph does not cause any harm. These infections can look like pimples, boils, or other skin conditions and most are able to be treated.
Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacteriumtuberculosis. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare personnel in healthcare facilities. Transmission is most likely to occur from patients who have unrecognized pulmonary tuberculosis or tuberculosis related to their larynx, are not on effective anti-tuberculosis therapy, and have not been placed in tuberculosis isolation. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Healthcare Settings has been associated with close contact with persons who have infectious tuberculosis, particularly during the performance of cough-inducing procedures such as bronchoscopy and sputum induction. MycobacteriumTuberculosis is spread through air and can travel long distances. Cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, which includes extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis [XDR-TB]), have been recognized and are more difficult to treat.
Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (also called S. aureus) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are specific staph bacteria that have developed resistance to the antimicrobial agent vancomycin. Persons who develop this type of staph infection may have underlying health conditions (such as diabetes and kidney disease), devices going into their bodies (such as catheters), previous infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and recent exposure to vancomycin and other antimicrobial agents. [Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus is also called VISA and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is also called VRSA]
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci are specific types of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin, the drug often used to treat infections caused by enterococci. Enteroccocci are bacteria that are normally present in the human intestines and in the female genital tract and are often found in the environment. These bacteria can sometimes cause infections. Most vancomycin-resistant Enterococci infections occur in hospitals. [Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci is also called VRE]